Ulrich Bindseil is the Director General of the ECB’s Directorate General for Market Infrastructures and Payment Systems (DG-MIP) since 1. November 2019. Previously, he had been the ECB’s Director General for Market Operations (since May 2012) and head of the ECB's Risk Management Division (between 2005 and 2008). Ulrich has joined central banking in 1994, namely in the Economics Department of the Deutsche Bundesbank, after his Economics studies. His publications include: Monetary Policy Operations and the Financial System (OUP, 2014): Central banking before 1800 – A rehabilitation (OUP, 2019).